Fottea, 2011 (vol. 11), issue 1

18th Symposium of the International Association for Cyanobacteria/
Cyanophyte Reseach.

HAUER T., KAŠTOVSKÝ J., KOMÁREK J.

Fottea 11(1): i-ii, 2011  

List of reviewers of the IAC Proceedings volume.

Fottea

Fottea 11(1): iii, 2011  

Introduction to the 18th IAC Symposium in České Budějovice 2010, Czech Republic -  Some current problems of modern cyanobacterial taxonomy.

Jiří Komárek

Fottea 11(1): 1-7, 2011 | 10.5507/fot.2011.001  

Naming Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria - a bacteriologist's view.

Aharon Oren

Fottea 11(1): 9-16, 2011 | 10.5507/fot.2011.002  

This paper provides information on the origin and the etymology of the names of genera of Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria in current use and on the way new names are formed under the provisions of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature and the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes. Special emphasis is placed on the differences between the two Codes that should be taken into account when creating new names compatible both with the botanical and with the bacteriological nomenclature system, to support the ongoing efforts to harmonize the nomenclature of the Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria under the two Codes.

Intra-genomic 16S rRNA gene heterogeneity in cyanobacterial genomes.

Niclas Engene, William H. Gerwick

Fottea 11(1): 17-24, 2011 | 10.5507/fot.2011.003  

The ability of the small ribosomal subunit (16S) rRNA to infer fine-scale phylogenetic relationships is, in principal, impaired by the presence of multiple and variable gene copies within the same genome. This study investigated the extent of intra-genomic 16S rRNA gene heterogeneity in cyanobacteria. Using bioinformatics, all available sequenced cyanobacterial genomes were screened for microheterogeneity between their paralogous ribosomal genes. As a result, cyanobacteria were found to commonly contain multiple ribosomal operons and the numbers of copies were relatively proportional to genome size. Moreover, intra-genomic paralogous 16S rRNA gene...

New morphospecies of Chamaesiphon (Cyanobacteria) from Atlantic rainforest, Brazil.

Célia L. Sant´Anna, Watson A. Gama Jr., Maria Teresa P. Azevedo, Jiří Komárek

Fottea 11(1): 25-30, 2011 | 10.5507/fot.2011.004  

The Atlantic rainforest is considered one of the most important hotspots of biodiversity on Earth. This great diversity results from the variation of climatic conditions (rainy, warm and cold in high mountains), what generates a unique series of rain forest ecosystems quite distinct from each other. Unfortunately, due to the human impact over the centuries, today there are just fragments of preserved native rainforest. During the investigation
about the cyanobacterial flora from the Atlantic rainforest, a special Chamaesiphon morphotype was found on a rock in streaming water. Chamaesiphon stratosus sp. nova is close to C. britannicus...

Polyphasic characterization of ITD-01, a cyanobacterium isolated from the Ischia Thermal District (Naples, Italy).

Katia Sciuto, Nicoletta Rascio, Carlo Andreoli, Isabella Moro

Fottea 11(1): 31-39, 2011 | 10.5507/fot.2011.005  

This paper deals with the characterization of a filamentous cyanobacterial strain, isolated from the microbial mats developing on the thermal muds of Ischia Thermal District (Naples, Italy).
The survey was carried out by a polyphasic approach that includes morphological, ultrastructural, biochemical, and genetic analyses. For the molecular analyses the 16S rDNA gene and the rbcL gene were considered. All results showed that this filamentous cyanobacterium belongs to the order Oscillatoriales, family Pseudanabaenaceae. Moreover, the phylogenetic reconstruction suggests that strain ITD-01 might represent the first described entity belonging to a...

A taxonomic study on Phormidium-group (cyanobacteria) based on morphology, pigments, RAPD molecular markers and RFLP analysis of the 16S rRNA gene fragment.

Katarzyna A. Palinska, Bernd Deventer, Kamal Hariri, Maria Łotocka

Fottea 11(1): 41-55, 2011 | 10.5507/fot.2011.006  

Twenty nine Phormidium-like strains, obtained from different culture collections, isolated from different habitats and geographical localities were analyzed morphologically as well as using HPLC, spectrophotometry, RAPD markers (random amplified polymorphic DNA) and RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) of 16S rRNA sequences. On the base of cell width, degree of constriction between adjacent cells and cell form three
distinct groups were recognized. Group I consisted of strains with the cell width less than 1.5μm, elongated with strong constrictions; group II contained majority strains with the cell width between 1.5 and 2.5μm,...

Taxonomic revision of the freshwater cyanobacterium "Phormidium" murrayi = Wilmottia murrayi.

Otakar Strunecký, Josef Elster, Jiří Komárek

Fottea 11(1): 57-71, 2011 | 10.5507/fot.2011.007  

The cyanobacterial genus Phormidium is polyphyletic, as follows from recent molecular and phenotypic analyses. Several isolated clusters were found also in Antarctic populations (Taton et al. 2006, Taton et al. 2010, Strunecký et al. 2010b). A few of them have already been described or revised on the generic level (e.g., Phormidesmis, Microcoleus). One of the separate clusters belongs to a group of strains identified traditionally as Phormidium murrayi, described from the Antarctica originally in 1911 as Lyngbya murrayi by W. et G.S.West. We evaluated 23 morphologically similar strains or populations resembling Ph. murrayi from the Antarctica and few...

Polyphasic approach and adaptative strategies of Nostoc cf. commune (Nostocales, Nostocaceae) growing on Mayan monuments.

M. Ramírez, M. Hernández-Mariné, P. Mateo, E. Berrendero, M. Roldán

Fottea 11(1): 73-86, 2011 | 10.5507/fot.2011.008  

An aerophytic Nostoc, from a Mayan monument, has been characterized by phenotypic and molecular approaches, and identified as a morphospecies of Nostoc commune. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that it belongs to a Nostoc sensu stricto clade, which contains strains identified as N. commune. Nostoc cf. commune is found in two close areas: Site I (protected from direct sunlight by a wall), where it forms biofilms on mortar with Trentepohlia
aurea; and Site II, where it grows on exposed stucco with the accompanying organism Scytonema guyanense. Over the year, in a habitat dictated by alternating wet and dry seasons,...

In situ response of Nostoc commune s.l. colonies to desiccation in Central Svalbard, Norwegian High Arctic.
 

Jana Kvíderová, Josef Elster, Miloslav imek

Fottea 11(1): 87-97, 2011 | 10.5507/fot.2011.009  

The effects of desiccation on photochemical processes and nitrogenase activity were evaluated in Nostoc commune s.l. colonies in situ from a wet thufur meadow at Petuniabukta, Billefjorden, Central Svalbard, during the 2009 arctic summer. The colonies were collected in the fully hydrated state, and were subjected to slow desiccation at ambient temperatures (5 - 8°C) and low light (30 - 80 μmol.m-2.s-1). For each colony the weight, area, photochemical performance, and nitrogenase activity were determined at the beginning, as well as on every day during the first four days of the experiment; thereafter, on every second day until desiccation...

Phylogenetic and morphological evaluation of Wollea saccata (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria) isolated from the Yenissei River basin (Eastern Siberia, Russia).

Igor V. Kozhevnikov, Nelya A. Kozhevnikova

Fottea 11(1): 99-106, 2011 | 10.5507/fot.2011.010  

For the first time the genus Wollea Bornet et Flahault was recorded in Eastern Siberia (Yenissei River, Karskoe See Basin) and isolated to monoclonal axenic strain ACCS 045. The strain was characterized by a combination of morphological and molecular approaches. It shares the diacritical features of the type-species W. saccata (Wolle) Bornet et Flahault and W. bharadwajae R.N. Singh such as macroscopic gelatinous colonies, tube-like, trichomes more or less straight or slightly curved, sheaths around trichomes are absent, heterocytes intercalary, and paraheterocytic akinete development at both sides of heteocytes in short series....

Evolutionary differentiation of the sister cyanobacterial genera Cyanospira Florenzano, Sili, Pelosi et Vincenzini and Anabaenopsis (Woloszyńska) Miller in response to extreme life conditions.

Claudio Sili, Cristina Mascalchi, Stefano Ventura

Fottea 11(1): 107-117, 2011 | 10.5507/fot.2011.011  

To clarify the distinctiveness of the genus Cyanospira from the related genus Anabaenopsis, a morphological study of several undescribed strains of Cyanospira and an extensive phylogenetic analysis of Anabaenopsis and Cyanospira were performed.
Heterocytous cyanobacterial strains were isolated from natron salt samples from the Republic of Chad containing large numbers of dormant dry akinetes. Morphology, and the entire life cycle, from akinete germination to the development of mature vegetative forms, were documented. Cultures of Cyanospira, obtained from the germination of desiccated akinetes, were characterized...

Effects of the pH on growth and morphology of Anabaenopsis elenkinii Miller (Cyanobacteria) isolated from the alkaline shallow lake of the Brazilian Pantanal.

Kleber Renan de Souza Santos, Fernanda Rios Jacinavicius, Célia Leite Sant'Anna

Fottea 11(1): 119-126, 2011 | 10.5507/fot.2011.012  

Anabaenopsis elenkinii Miller forms bloom in the alkaline shallow lakes of the Brazilian Pantanal. The A. elenkinii CCIBT1059 strain was isolated from one of these alkaline lakes and the experiments were made in growth chamber during 30 days, under modified medium BG-11 (3 % NaNO3), temperature 25 ºC, photoperiod 12-12 light-dark cycle and irradiance of 80-100 μmol photons m-2 s-1 at three different pH values: 7.0, 9.5 and 10.5. In relation to growth rate and cell yield the higher values were observed at pH 10.5. Morphologically, the longest trichomes were found at pH 7 (maximum 45 cells) in comparison with pH 9.5 (maximum 32 cells)...

Tapinothrix clintonii sp. nov. (Pseudanabaenaceae, Cyanobacteria), a new species at the nexus of five genera.

Markéta Bohunická, Jeffrey R. Johansen, Karolina Fučíková

Fottea 11(1): 127-140, 2011 | 10.5507/fot.2011.013  

A new species was isolated and characterized from Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. This taxon shares morphological characteristics with five different genera, Ammatoidea, Homoeothrix, Leptolyngbya, Phormidiochaete, and Tapinothrix. An argument could be made to place it in any of these genera, however, we consider the most taxonomically correct genus for our pseudanabaenalean species to be Tapinothrix, and we accordingly describe it as T. clintonii sp. nov. Phylogenetically, the taxon is closest to Leptolyngbya sensu stricto, but it has very distinctive morphology and 16S-23S ITS sequence...

Tapinothrix ozarkiana sp. nov., with notes on distribution for the genus in North America.

Jeffrey R. Johansen, Klára Řeháková, Frank Acker

Fottea 11(1): 141-148, 2011 | 10.5507/fot.2011.014  

A total of 77 samples from streams and rivers were found to contain populations of Tapinothrix (Pseudanabaenaceae), a genus currently confused with Homoeothrix (Oscillatoriaceae). Three species within the genus were identified: T. ozarkiana sp. nov., T. varians, and T. janthina.

Scytonematopsis contorta sp. nov. (Nostocales), a new species from the Hawaiian Islands.

Melissa A. Vaccarino, Jeffrey R. Johansen

Fottea 11(1): 149-161, 2011 | 10.5507/fot.2011.015  

Scytonematopsis Kiseleva is a poorly known cyanobacterial genus with a widespread, mostly tropical distribution. A new species, S. contorta, is described from the Hawaiian Island of Oahu based on morphological and molecular evidence. The new species was found growing on rock in damp aerial habitats proximal to streams and waterfalls. It differs in several regards to the other 14 species, in particular in its pronounced ability to produce a spirally contorted trichome within a single filament. The phylogenetic placement of the genus is uncertain. It is associated with both Rivularia and Calothrix species in the Rivulariaceae,...

Umezakia natans M.Watan. does not belong to Stigonemataceae but to Nostocaceae.

Yuko Niiyama, Akihiro Tuji, Shigeo Tsujimura

Fottea 11(1): 163-169, 2011 | 10.5507/fot.2011.016  

Umezakia natans M.Watan. was described by Dr. M. Watanabe in 1987 as a new species in the family of Stigonemataceae, following the rules of the Botanical Code. According to the original description, this planktonic filamentous species grows well in a growth media with pH being 7 to 9, and with a smaller proportion of sea water. Both heterocytes and akinetes were observed, as well as true branches developing perpendicular to the original trichomes in cultures older than one month. Watanabe concluded that Umezakia was a monotypic and only planktonic genus belonging to the family of Stigonemataceae. Unfortunately, the type culture has been...

Microvegetation on the top of Mt. Roraima, Venezuela.

Jan Kaštovský, Karolina Fučíková, Tomáš Hauer, Markéta Bohunická

Fottea 11(1): 171-186, 2011 | 10.5507/fot.2011.017  

Venezuelan Table Mountains (tepuis) are among world's most unique ecological systems and have been shown to have high incidence of endemics. The top of Roraima, the highest Venezuelan tepui, represents an isolated enclave of species without any contact with the surrounding landscape. Daily precipitation enables algae and cyanobacteria to cover the otherwise bare substrate surfaces on the summit in form of a black biofilm. In the present study, 139 samples collected over 4 years from various biotopes (vertical and horizontal moist rock walls, small rock pools, peat bogs, and small streams and waterfalls) were collected and examined for algal diversity...

The biodiversity of subaerophytic phototrophic biofilms from Maltese hypogea.

Gabrielle Zammit, Daniela Billi, Elliot Shubert, Jan Kaštovský, Patrizia Albertano

Fottea 11(1): 187-201, 2011 | 10.5507/fot.2011.018  

The present study focuses on a description of the biodiversity of subaerial phototrophic biofilms occurring on archaeological surfaces in Maltese hypogean environments, namely St Paul's, St Agatha's and Abbatija tad-Dejr Catacombs, all situated in Rabat and the ancient Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum at Paola, Malta. Direct observation of the biofilms, carried out using light (LM), epifluorescent and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), allowed the description of the major cyanobacterial and microalgal taxa, and also the associated heterotrophic microorganisms, mainly actinobacteria. Some biofilm microorganisms were able to grow in culture and this...

Diversity of cyanobacteria in man-made solar saltern, Petchaburi Province, Thailand - a pilot study.

Thomrat Chatchawan, Yuwadee Peerapornpisal, Jiří Komárek

Fottea 11(1): 203-214, 2011 | 10.5507/fot.2011.019  

Solar salterns can be found in many tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world, however, nothing is known from these habitats in Southeast Asia. The Petchaburi solar salterns are located in Petchaburi Province, middle part of Thailand. These areas can be defined as hypersaline biotopes where, in salt-producing times, salinity increases by more than 10 times that of seawater. The annual salinity gradient of these areas ranges from 0 - 35 ppt. in the non salt-producing period and gradually elevates from more than 35 ppt. up to saturation in the salt producing period, when salt crystals are formed. The cyanobacterial samples were collected...

Cyanobacterial diversity and bioactivity of inland hypersaline microbial
mats from a desert stream in the Sultanate of Oman.

Raeid M. M. Abed, Sergey Dobrestov, Samiha Al-Kharusi, Angela Schramm, Barry Jupp, Stjepko Golubic

Fottea 11(1): 215-224, 2011 | 10.5507/fot.2011.020  

The cyanobacterial layer (1-3 mm) of microbial mats of Wadi Muqshin, Sultanate of Oman, in hypersaline continental pools near the Empty Quarter desert were analyzed for cyanobacterial diversity, pigments composition and antibacterial and quorum sensing inhibition activities at the microbial community level. The salinity of the ponds reached up to 75 ‰, the temperature was around 49 °C and the salt composition was similar to seawater. Cyanobacteria in pools containing coccoid and filamentous forms similar to those normally found in salt ponds and in intertidal flats were found. Among the observed taxa were Microcoleus chthonoplastes, Spirulina...

Planktic Cyanobacteria in the Lower Uruguay River, South America.

Graciela Ferrari, María del Carmen Pérez, María Dabezies, Diana Míguez, Carlos Saizar

Fottea 11(1): 225-234, 2011 | 10.5507/fot.2011.021  

The Uruguay River is the second most important river in the Río de la Plata Basin. Taxonomical composition, abundance and distribution of cyanobacteria collected at nine sampling stations in the Lower Uruguay River (Uruguay) were analyzed seasonally from 2006 to 2009. A total of 24 taxa were identified, including 13 Chroococcales, 4 Oscillatoriales and 7 Nostocales species. The genera Dolichospermum and Microcystis presented the highest number of species among the planktic water bloom-forming cyanobacteria. The highest densities of cyanobacteria were recorded in summer during a bloom, with 6.2×106 cells.ml-1, and the most abundant species...

Biodiversity and temporal distribution of Chroococcales (Cyanoprokaryota) of an arid mangrove on the east coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

Hilda León-Tejera, Claudia J. Pérez-Estrada, Gustavo Montejano, Elisa Serviere-Zaragoza

Fottea 11(1): 235-244, 2011 | 10.5507/fot.2011.022  

Arid mangroves constitute a particular biotope, with very extreme variations in ecological conditions, mainly temperature and salinity, condition that demand specific adaptations to successfully inhabit this ecosystem. Cyanoprokaryotes have not been well studied in Mexican coasts and this is the first study that contributes to the knowledge of the biodiversity of this group in an arid mangrove in Zacatecas estuary, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Samples of Avicennia germinans pneumatophores from Zacatecas estuary were collected between May 2005 and May 2006. The identification of the most representative Chroococcales produced 10 morphotypes, described...