Fottea, 2017 (vol. 17), issue 2

Original article

Allelopathic potential of stoneworts

Barbara Mähnert, Michael Schagerl, Liselotte Krenn

Fottea 2017, 17(2):137-149 | 10.5507/fot.2016.024  

We investigated growth inhibitory effects of the stoneworts (Characeae) Chara aspera, C. globularis, C. rudis and C. tomentosa on the target organisms Chlorella vulgaris, Acutodesmus acuminatus (Chlorophyta), Synechococcus elongatus, S. leopoliensis (Cyanobacteria) and Aliivibrio fischeri (Proteobateria). Besides fresh Chara shoots, we tested dichloromethane, n-butanol and methanol extracts from dried algae and condensed ice from the lyophilisation process. The study revealed a high potential of allelochemicals of stoneworts for antibiotic treatments, which could be applied...

Two new Tursiocola species (Bacillariophyta) epizoic on green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in French Guiana and Eastern Caribbean

Catherine Riaux-Gobin, Andrzej Witkowski, Damien Chevallier, Genowefa Daniszewska-Kowalczyk

Fottea 2017, 17(2):150-163 | 10.5507/fot.2017.007  

Scrapings from several juvenile Chelonia mydas Linnaeus (green turtle) from Eastern Caribbean and adults from French Guiana allowed for the description of two small and relatively rare epizoic Tursiocola species (Bacillariophyta). Differences with the other eight Tursiocola species previously described are discussed here. Particular attention is given to the cingulum of the two new species and a conceptual key is proposed for Tursiocola species, based on the cingulum structure.

Morphology and distribution of Encyonema angustecapitatum Krammer species complex (Bacillariophyceae) with description of four new species from São Paulo, southeast Brazil

Gisele C. Marquardt, Simone Wengrat, Denise C. Bicudo, Carlos E. Wetzel, Luc Ector, Carlos E. de M. Bicudo

Fottea 2017, 17(2):164-177 | 10.5507/fot.2017.008  

Type material of Encyonema angustecapitatum Krammer was investigated to establish the identity of several Brazilian Encyonema populations. In order to elucidate the differences and similarities of that species complex, morphological features under light and scanning electron microscopy were detailed. Notes on their distribution were also discussed. MDS analysis distinguished four Encyonema species presently described as new to science: Encyonema acquapurae sp. nov., Encyonema sparsistriatum sp. nov., Encyonema tenue sp. nov. and Encyonema paradisiacum sp. nov. The four new species can be separated on...

Komarekiella atlantica gen. et sp. nov. (Nostocaceae, Cyanobacteria): a new subaerial taxon from the Atlantic Rainforest and Kauai, Hawaii

Guilherme Scotta Hentschke, Jeffrey R. Johansen, Nicole Pietrasiak, Janaina Rigonato, Marli F. Fiore, Célia Leite Sant'Anna

Fottea 2017, 17(2):178-190 | 10.5507/fot.2017.002  

Six strains of Cyanobacteria sampled in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest and one strain from Kauai, Hawaii, were studied using morphological and molecular approaches, including 16S rRNA gene phylogenies and 16S-23S ITS secondary structures, and are herein described as Komarekilla atlantica gen. et sp. nov.. Morphologically they are similar to Nostoc, Desmonostoc, Halotia, and Mojavia and indistinguishable from Chlorogloeopsis. The parsimony and Bayesian phylogenies of the 16S rDNA show that these strains are close to nostocacean strains, in strongly supported clades and separated from all other genera. The secondary structures...

A taxonomic revision of Desmodesmus serie Desmodesmus (Sphaeropleales, Scenedesmaceae)

Eberhard Hegewald, Anke Braband

Fottea 2017, 17(2):191-208 | 10.5507/fot.2017.001  

The revision of the serie Desmodesmus, based on light microscopy, TEM, SEM and ITS2r DNA, allowed us to distinguish among the taxa Desmodesmus communis var. communis, var. polisicus, D. curvatocornis, D. rectangularis comb. nov., D. pseudocommunis n. sp. var. texanus n. var. and f. verrucosus n. f., D. protuberans, D. protuberans var. communoides var. nov., D. pseudoprotuberans n. sp., D. schmidtii n. sp. Keys were given for light microscopy, electron microscopy and ITS2r DNA.

Genetic diversity in chrysophytes: Comparison of different gene markers

Christina Bock, Antonis Chatzinotas, Jens Boenigk

Fottea 2017, 17(2):209-221 | 10.5507/fot.2017.005  

Chrysophytes are a diverse group of protists belonging to the Stramenopiles. They encompass a broad range of nutrition strategies (phototrophy, mixotrophy and heterotrophy) and morphological forms (unicellular, colonial, branched, non-scaled to silica-scaled). However, taxonomy, identification and delineation of genera and species are hampered by the polyphyletic origin of several morphotypes and the low resolution of morphological features; moreover, description of these features requires in many cases special equipment like TEM or SEM. To test the congruent phylogeny, genetic resolution and to reveal the genetic diversity of chrysophytes, we evaluated...

Taxonomical analysis of closely related species of Chara L. section Hartmania (Streptophyta: Charales) based on morphological and molecular data

Jacek Urbaniak*, Hidetoshi Sakayama

Fottea 2017, 17(2):222-239 | 10.5507/fot.2017.004  

In this study, five charophyte species belonging to the genus Chara L. section Hartmania, collected in Poland, were examined to determine their taxonomic status. Oospore dimensions of all investigated species differed significantly in their length, width and number of striae. However, no clear differences were found in the case of the oospore wall ornamentation that could be used for clear differentiation of the studied species. Detailed SEM images showed that the ornamentation on the oospore wall is not species specific, and also does not allow for differentiation of the species. Moreover, molecular phylogenetic analyses based on the...

Diversity of freshwater dinoflagellates in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil, with taxonomic and distributional notes

Kaoli P. Cavalcante, Sandra C. Craveiro, António J. Calado, Thelma A. V. Ludwig, Luciana de S. Cardoso

Fottea 2017, 17(2):240-263 | 10.5507/fot.2016.026  

Dinoflagellate taxonomy has been undergoing a comprehensive review in recent decades. Knowledge on Brazilian dinoflagellate flora remains quite incomplete, particularly regarding the size of the country. This study is the first taxonomic survey of freshwater dinoflagellates in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. Forty-one freshwater environments were sampled in Paraná and two others on the border between Paraná and Santa Catarina during 2010-2015, and 21 dinoflagellate taxa assigned to 13 genera were identified and described based on light (LM) and scanning electron (SEM) microscopy. A new combination is proposed: Parvodinium africanum var....

A new Muelleria species (Bacillariophyta) from the Maritime Antarctic Region

Natalia Kochman-Kędziora, Teresa Noga, Bart Van de Vijver, Jadwiga Stanek-Tarkowska

Fottea 2017, 17(2):264-268 | 10.5507/fot.2017.003  

During a survey conducted on the soil diatom flora of newly exposed areas due to the retreat of the Ecology Glacier (King George Island, South Shetlands) an unknown Muelleria taxon was observed that could not be identified using the currently available literature. Based on detailed morphological observations using LM and SEM microscopy the unknown taxon has been described as new for science - Muelleria olechiae sp. nov. The new species is characterized in having typically bifurcated terminal raphe fissures, elongated, deflected proximal raphe endings and a lack of canal puncta. It was observed in several soil samples, but always in relatively...

A new cyanobacterium from the Everglades, Florida - Chamaethrix gen. nov.

Petr Dvořák*, Petr Hašler, Petra Pitelková, Petra Tabáková, Dale A. Casamatta, Aloisie Poulíčková

Fottea 2017, 17(2):269-276 | 10.5507/fot.2017.017  

Cyanobacteria are cosmopolitan group of phototrophic microbes with significant contributions to global primary production. However, their biodiversity, especially in tropical areas, is still largely unexplored. In this paper, we used a combination of molecular and morphological data to characterize a filamentous cyanobacterium isolated from a soil crust in the Everglades National Park in Florida. It is morphologically similar to the ubiquitous, polyphyletic Leptolyngbya, but phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and secondary structures of the 16S-23S ITS region revealed that our isolates form a monophyletic clade unrelated to Leptolyngbya...

New species and combinations on Fragilariforma (Bacillariophyta) from tropical freshwater environments

Pryscilla D. Almeida, Carlos E. Wetzel, Eduardo A. Morales, Luc Ector, Denise C. Bicudo

Fottea 2017, 17(2):277-292 | 10.5507/fot.2017.006  

Several species currently belonging to the genus Fragilariforma D.M. Williams et Round are known worldwide. This genus is mainly characterized by regular spacing of the uniseriate striae composed of round areolae bearing simple vela, and simple apical pore fields. A large number of species has been recognised for some regions of South America and tropical Africa, but few studies encompass type material and/or the morphological variation existing within populations of the different species. The aim of this study is to identify and describe the morphology of these species from tropical environments under light and scanning electron microscopy...

Two new Cymatopleura taxa (Bacillariophyta) from Xinjiang, China with slightly twisted frustules

Qingmin You, J. Patrick Kociolek, Meijia Cai, Pan Yu, Quanxi Wang

Fottea 2017, 17(2):293-302 | 10.5507/fot.2017.014  

Two new species of the diatom genus Cymatopleura, Cymatopleura aquastudia and Cymatopleura xinjiangiana, that have torsion about the apical axis of the valves, are reported from Xinjiang Region, China, using light and scanning electron microscopy. The valves of Cymatopleura aquastudia sp. nov. exhibit torsion about the apical axis, are heteropolar, and are slightly constricted at the margin in the middle of the valves. These characters differentiate it from morphologically similar taxa in the genus, e.g. C. solea (Brébisson) W. Smith and C. spiralis Behning in Rauschenbach et Behning. The valves...

Personalia

Prof. RNDr. František Hindák, DrSc. – 80 years

Jiří Komárek

Fottea 2017, 17(2):i-ii  

Prof. František Hindák, who celebrates his 80th years anniversary in March 2017, belongs to the prominent specialists of the Slovak and also the world phycology. His name is surely connected with the start and development of the modern research of algae in Slovakia. While the historical phycological investigations in Slovakia, particularly in the Carpathians – High Tatra Moutains, were covered sooner mainly by the specialists from Hungary, Poland or by the Czech colleagues, he fully developed a supported the modern phycological research on Slovakian scientific institutions and universities.