Fottea, 2013 (vol. 13), issue 2

Epilithic diatoms of springs and spring-fed streams in Majorca Island
(Spain) with the description of a new diatom species Cymbopleura margalefii sp. nov.

Cristina Delgado, Luc Ector, Maria Helena Novais, Saúl Blanco, Lucien Hoffmann, Isabel Pardo

Fottea 13(2): 87-104, 2013 | 10.5507/fot.2013.009  

The Island of Majorca (Spain) is characterized by a Mediterranean climate and a karstic geology that favors the formation of numerous springs and spring-fed streams on the island's Northwester zone. Water and epilithic diatom samples were collected from two springs and four spring-fed streams, located at altitudes ranging from 0 to 756 m a.s.l., in different seasons between 2005 and 2008. Water chemistry in these systems is characterized by high concentrations of dissolved calcium and pH values ranging from 6.6 to 8.4. A total of 111 diatom taxa belonging to 40 genera were found and the most abundant taxa were illustrated with LM and SEM. The diatom...

Analysis of the type material of Achnanthidium lanceolatum Brébisson ex
Kützing (Bacillariophyta) with the description of two new Planothidium species from the Antarctic Region.

Bart Van de Vijver, Carlos Wetzel, Kateřina Kopalová, Ralitsa Zidarova, Luc Ector

Fottea 13(2): 105-117, 2013 | 10.5507/fot.2013.010  

The type material of Achnanthidium lanceolatum (transferred in 1999 to the genus Planothidium) is investigated to reveal the identity of several Planothidium populations from the Antarctic Region. The morphology and the ultrastructure was analysed using light and scanning electron microscopy. The results of this analysis revealed the presence of two so far undescribed Planothidium species in the investigated Antarctic material. Both species are described as new to science: P. rostrolanceolatum Van de Vijver, Kopalová et Zidarova sp. nov. and P. subantarcticum Van de Vijver et C.E.Wetzel sp. nov. The new species can...

Typification of seven species of Encyonema and characterization of Encyonema leibleinii comb. nov.

Weliton José Silva, Regine Jahn, Thelma Alvim Veiga Ludwig, Mariângela Menezes

Fottea 13(2): 119-132, 2013 | 10.5507/fot.2013.011  

The first species described in the genus Encyonema were not lectotypified. Despite the absence of types, some specialists have either defended or accepted synonymizations based on their own concepts, such as in the cases of Encyonema prostratum, Gloionema paradoxum, G. leibleinii and E. paradoxum, the type of the genus Encyonema. We aimed to lectotypify E. paradoxum, E. prostratum, E. cespitosum, E. triangulum, Gloionema paradoxum, G. leibleinii and E. lacustre. Original material was inspected and characterized. These lectotypifications resulted in the verification of the conspecificity of E. paradoxum,...

Molecular species discovery in the diatom Sellaphora and its congruence with mating trials.

Pieter Vanormelingen, Katharine M. Evans, Victor A. Chepurnov, Wim Vyverman, David G. Mann

Fottea 13(2): 133-148, 2013 | 10.5507/fot.2013.012  

Many diatom and other microbial eukaryote morphospecies consist of a variable number of (pseudo)cryptic species, with obvious consequences for such fields as biogeography and community ecology. Here, we investigated the species limits of morphologically similar small-celled strains of the model diatom Sellaphora from the United Kingdom and Australia, using cox1 mitochondrial and rbcL chloroplast gene sequences. Based on cox1 sequence data, the sequenced strains belonged to six closely related lineages, presumably species, of which one corresponds to the previously described S. auldreekie D.G. Mann & S.M. McDonald. Although rbcL displayed...

A phylogenetic study on Scenedesmaceae with the description of a new species of Pectinodesmus and the new genera Verrucodesmus and Chodatodesmus (Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae).

Eberhard Hegewald, Christina Bock, Lothar Krienitz

Fottea 13(2): 149-164, 2013 | 10.5507/fot.2013.013  

A comparative study of the phylogeny of Scenedesmaceae based on rRNA gene sequences (ITS1/5.8S/ITS2), cell morphology and cell wall ultrastructure resulted in the acceptance of the genus Acutodesmus and the description of the new genera Verrucodesmus and Chodatodesmus. A new species Pectinodesmus holtmannii and 11 new combinations were erected: Chodatodesmus mucronulatus, Verrucodesmus verrucosus, V. parvus, Pectinodesmus pectinatus f. tortuosus, Acutodesmus bajacalifornicus, A. bernardii, A. deserticola, A. dissociatus, A. distendus, A. nygaardii, A. obliquus var. dactylococcoides....

Contrast and comparison of aerial algal communities from two distinct regions in the U.S.A., the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (TN) and the Lake Superior region.

Jennifer A. Ress, Rex L. Lowe

Fottea 13(2): 165-172, 2013 | 10.5507/fot.2013.014  

The Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) and the land surrounding Lake Superior (LSR) are rich in aerial habitats and support diverse aerial algal communities. Currently, the ecology of aerial algal communities is not well understood. Furthermore, no research has been published directly comparing aerial algal floras between geographic regions. We analyzed the ecology of the aerial habitats within each region and compared the overall algal flora between these two regions. Physical and chemical factors, including aspect, moisture levels, light levels, and pH were measured at each sampling location.
Communities from both regions were dominated...

Phenotype diversity and phylogeny of selected Scytonema-species (Cyanoprokaryota) from SE Brazil.

Jiří Komárek, Celia L. Sant´Anna, Markéta Bohunická, Jan Mareš, Guilherme S. Hentschke, Janaina Rigonato, Marli F. Fiore

Fottea 13(2): 173-200, 2013 | 10.5507/fot.2013.015  

Members of the genus Scytonema belong to prominent components of microflora of tropical and subtropical soils, but their diversity and taxonomic classification is still little known. Molecular analyses of isolated strains, but also the morphological and ecological examination of natural populations are important for the starting revisions. Here we present phenotype characteristics of fourteen morphotypes of the cyanobacterial genus Scytonema from the SE Brazil, mostly from the state São Paulo and from the Atlantic Rainforest (ecosystem of "Mata Atlântica"). The populations of studied Scytonema species are ecologically significant,...

Description of the cyanobacterial genus Desmonostoc gen. nov. including D. muscorum comb. nov. as a distinct, phylogenetically coherent taxon related to the genus Nostoc.

Pavel Hrouzek, Alena Lukešová, Jan Mareš, Stefano Ventura

Fottea 13(2): 201-213, 2013 | 10.5507/fot.2013.016  

On the basis of data presented here and in earlier studies, Desmonostoc gen. nov. is described. The new genus includes the traditional species Nostoc muscorum Agardh ex Bornet et Flahault 1888, and several other strains previously assigned to the genus Nostoc, which present similar morphology and phylogenetic placement within the Desmonostoc lineage. The Desmonostoc clade is phylogenetically coherent according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis performed with four distinct approaches. In all phylogenetic trees, Desmonostoc formed a supported group separated from strains belonging to the related taxa Nostoc,...

Mass developments of a small sized ecotype of Arthrospira fusiformis in Lake Oloidien, Kenya, a new feeding ground for Lesser Flamingos in East Africa.

Lothar Krienitz, Pawan K. Dadheech, Kiplagat Kotut

Fottea 13(2): 215-225, 2013 | 10.5507/fot.2013.017  

The Lesser Flamingos constantly commute between the soda lakes of East Africa in search of food. Their preferred food, the cyanobacterium Arthrospira fusiformis, usually establishes dense populations in saline-alkaline habitats. However, the algal food resources are not stable and crash unexpectedly from time to time. Hence any site that provides food in suitable quality and quantity makes a valuable contribution to the survival of these nearly endangered birds. This paper reports on the development of a new feeding ground for the Lesser Flamingos; Lake Oloidien, a former bay of the freshwater lake Naivasha. Phytoplankton succession and biomass,...

Chakia (cyanobacteria), a new heterocytous genus from Belizean marshes identified on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene.

Jaroslava Komárková, Eliška Zapomělová, Jiří Komárek

Fottea 13(2): 227-233, 2013 | 10.5507/fot.2013.018  

A new genus Chakia has been described on the basis of 16S rRNA sequences of four strains isolated from two localities in alkaline marshes in Belize (Central America). Characteristic morphological features of thalli both from natural environment and from cultivated strains were documented to complete the description of this new genus. The type strain has been named Ch.ciliosa sp. nov. Previous findings and up to now performed samplings and studies
of relative material have indicated that the occurrence of the genus in all Belizean alkaline marshes, Everglades (USA), Cuban and other tropical Caribbean alkaline marshes is evident or...

Phormidium etoshii sp. nov. (Oscillatoriales, Cyanobacteria) described from the Etosha Pan, Namibia, based on morphological, molecular and ecological features.

Pawan K. Dadheech, Dale A. Casamatta, Peter Casper, Lothar Krienitz

Fottea 13(2): 235-244, 2013 | 10.5507/fot.2013.019  

An edaphic, filamentous, nonheterocytous cyanobacterium was collected from the Etosha Pan, Namibia. Based on multilocus sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, beta and alpha subunits (cpcBA-IGS) of the phycocyanin operon and morphological and ecological features, we describe the new species Phormidium etoshii (Oscillatoriales). The taxon was differentiated from the phylogenetically closest taxa in morphological features and ecology.